Q (qualified name): this name is the preferred name for the place in a language different than that used by residents of the place (e.g. "紐約" for New York)
V (variation): this name is a well-known (but unofficial) name for the place (e.g. "New York City" for New York)
A (abbreviation): this name is a abbreviation or code for the place (e.g. "NYC" for New York)
S (synonym): this name is a colloquial name for the place (e.g. "Big Apple" for New York)
There will be only one Q name for a place in a given language. If there is no Q name for a given language, the name in the geoplanet_aliases file should be used. There may be multiple variations, abbreviations, and synonyms for a place. These can be used for recognition, but should not be displayed.
The P (English preferred) name type is similar to the Q name type, except that it applies only to the English language. If you want to display the English name for a place and there is no P name, use the name from the geoplanet_places file.