We don't really have league standings for specific weeks (at least, exposed through the webservices). We see league standings more as a season-long setting, so you can only get the current state of the world.
Outcome totals basically refers to win/loss records (in H2H leagues). The standard <outcome_totals> element is for your win/loss record against everyone. <divisional_outcome_totals> is for your win/loss record against everyone in your division. Obviously, you need to have your league broken into divisions for this to make any sense.